For decades, the "gold aircraft" from Colombia have been considered as some of the most spectacular archaeological finds.
The small gold objects are often referred to as "religious decorations" and "animal figurines", but like comparable burial objects from ancient Egypt they display features otherwise known only from modern aviation technology.
Such as the delta geometry of the low set wings, the exactly dimensioned tail with the rising rectangular tail fin and the horizontal elevator. Wind tunnel studies at the Aeronautical Institute in New York have confirmed this impressively.
Now, airworthy reconstructions of the miniature models have again confirmed what open-minded researchers had long suspected – that these objects could be models of giant airplanes that really did exist once upon a time!
Places of discovery: Tolima tombs in Colombia.
Age: around 500 AD, Tolima style (100 to 1000 AD)
“Miniature glider”, Sakkara replica, true to the original.
This strange artefact was found in 1898 in a grave in Sakkara, Egypt. It is a miniature version of a airplane-model. It was called “statuette of bird” and dated about 200 B.C. and kept in the Egypt Museum of antiquities, Cairo. Since 1919 the object was placed together with old Egypt bird-models. In 1969 Prof. Dr. Khalil Messiha (1924 –1998), Egyptian archaeologist and art historian, recognized that the object didt fi t the other birds. It does not have legs and feet, but straight wings and erected tail fin.
Experts examined the antique fi nd. It contains features of flight-technique that only can be known after years of intensive experiments. Who was the genious constructer of this object, about 2200 years ago? On the artefact there is an inscription: “Pa-Di-Imen”. This is an old Egypt word meaning “present of Amun”. The god Amun was the master of the breath of air. According to legends he lived in symbiosis with the god of the sun named Re.
Electrical Batteries from the Parthian Period.
Thousands of years old electrolytic batteries, 14cm high, with a lead coated iron rod inside a copper cylinder are on display in the National Museum of Baghdad. Bitumen was used as an insulation material for the metals, some of which are presumably unknown alloys. Most of these electrical cells were found in the vicinity of today's capital of Baghdad. They are said to date back to the Parthian period, more than 2000 years ago.
Places of discovery: 1936 during excavations in the Khujut Rabuà area, around the ancient town of Seleukia and the Parthian metropolis of Ktesiphon in Iraq.
Age: 2000 years (some sources tell of finds dating back a further 2000 years)
Bitumen seal / Tartaric, acetic or citric acid /Vase shaped clay enclosure
Iron rod /Copper cylinder /Bitumen coat /Copper cap
The Kensington Runestone
There are numerous theories about the first authentic discoverer of America: Leif Eriksson and his brothers in the 11th century; 985. A. D. the Viking Bjarn Herlufsson; or maybe Irish monks? This stone is one of the most astonishing fi nds. Most of the scientists suppose that it is a forgery from 19th century. But recent examinations resulted that it is an authentic document. The stone measures about 1 meter in height, 50 cm in breadth and is 10 cm thick. It weights 100 kg. It was found in 1898 by Olof Ohman, Swedish migrators and farmer in Kensington, Minnesota.
Columbus was Chinese.
Chinese traditions describe an expedition of Hi Shen and four other Buddhist monks who set off in the 5th century AD in search of "Fusang", the legendary, earthly paradise on the other side of the Eastern ocean. A jade head with pronounced Chinese features, the work of an Olmek artist, could be proof that the link between Mesoamerica and Asia's Middle Empire goes back a very long time indeed.
Found in Tenango, Mexico
Age: 1500 years or more
The cult of skull deformations was practiced by several cultures around the globe. A strange practice indeed, spread mainly in ancient Egypt, the Middle East, Africa, North, Central and South America and frequently in China. Some artificially elongated heads, deformed during early childhood, were even found in graves in Bavaria and Lower Austria, too. In more recent times, the deformation of skulls was still practiced in Lapland and on Crete. So far, the purpose of the deformation and why it was practiced all over the world at different times remains unclear. Was it just an ephemeral "ideal of beauty" or the desire to imitate a godly example, a kind of imitation cult? These are found all over the world from ancient until recent times.
The high precision Lenses of the Vikings.
Today's aspherically ground glasses for high precision optical instruments are generally held to be an achievement of our highly technological world, a product of the computer age. A mistaken view. Actually, the first such instruments date back to the 12th century. After several years of painstaking analyses, eyeglass experts have now confirmed that the ground rock crystal objects from the 12th century found in Swedish Viking graves were made almost to perfection.
If the lens is placed on a text page, the effect is the same as that obtained with a modern magnification glass measuring 5cm in diameter. It was not until the 17th century that mathematician René Descartes successfully made theoretical calculations about aspherical lenses. However, this precision technology was not known to have been used in practice before the 20th century. So how did they develop such sophisticated optical devices 8 centuries ago? Researchers from the University of California at Berkeley now want to further investigate the sensational "Viking" lenses. It is generally believed that the unusual items were originally manufactured in Byzantium, where they were purchased or stolen by the Vikings.
Place of discovery: Viking graves on the Baltic Sea island of Gotland, Sweden
Age: 12th century or earlier
"Marsian fashion wear“ in Stone. >>>>>
Who modeled this helmet-wearing figure? It was made between 1150 and 100 BC, is 17cm high, was made of reddish sandstone and is supposed to represent an Olmek priest king. However, the helmet, collar and facial expressions are strange and technological. The statue almost seems to represent a diver or astronaut. It even seems as if the supposed "priest king" was wearing gloves. And what is the significance of the claw feet of the unknown character, often associated with a mysterious "Jaguar Cult"? Approximately 30 years ago, the strange figure was displayed in public - in a showcase of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
Today, the figure is privately owned by researcher couple Dr. and Mrs. Milton Arno Leof, Mexico City. This "prehistoric astronaut" with clearly Mongoloid facial features was discovered in Xochipala, Guerrero, Mexico. Its origin is unknown.
Place of discovery: Xochipala, Guerrero, Mexico
Age: between 1150 and 100 BC.
As we know today, certain ejectors (fluid entrainment pumps) (A) will produce a relatively strong vacuum, especially if a cascade arrangement is used for the pumps - i.e. several identical components are connected in series. If a glass bulb with two metal parts reaching inside (B), (C) is evacuated, a discharge will occur at a much lower voltage, depending on the size of the glass balloon (D). At a pressure of approximately 40 torr (40mm mercury column), a line of light will wind its way from one metal part to the other (E). If the evacuation is continued, the line widens further until it eventually fills out the entire glass bulb. Exactly what the images in the underground chambers of the Hathor temple suggest.
As shown by the ancient reliefs on the walls of the Egyptian Hathor temple of Dendarah, the pharaoh's priests, just as knowledgeable in science as in religion, must have known the secret of electricity. These reliefs show human figures standing next to bulb-shaped structures. It does not take a stretch of the imagination to recognize these objects as overdimensioned light bulbs. Snakes trapped inside these objects perform a wave-like movement. Do they symbolize electrical discharges? The snakes emanate from the central tip of a lotus flower. An accurate design from the physical point of view. After all, this is exactly the point where the field intensity reaches its maximum in a modern bulb socket. Thus, the lotus flower could be interpreted as the bulb socket, connected via the cable-like hose to some kind of energy store. The entire structure is supported by insulator type Djec pillars with arms, often directly connected with the snakes. Egyptologists refer to the illustrated items as "cult objects" without knowing their original meaning.
However, these Egyptologist views are in stark contrast with the studies of electrical engineer Dipl.Ing. Walter Garn from Vienna. The project manager of a large industrial group studied the reliefs and came to the conclusion that "accurate illustrations like these would be impossible without a basic knowledge of electrical engineering –too many technical details simply fit the picture." Inspired by his discoveries, engineer Garn built a working 40cm model based on the ancient Egyptian design. Garn concludes: "If you remove air from a glass bulb that has two metal parts reaching inside, discharges will occur at a lower voltage. At a pressure of 40 torr (40mm Hg = unit of measurement on a mercury column), a line of light will wind its way from one metal part to the other. If the suction removal process is continued, the line widens further until it eventually fills out the entire glass bulb. Exactly as the images in the underground chambers of the Hathor temple suggest."
Place of discovery: Dendarah, 60km to the North of Luxor, Egypt
Age: at least 100 BC. This is the time when the temple was last converted; according to the "Construction Deed of Dendarah", its foundations reach back to the times of the very first pharaoh dynasties.